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Afrika

Utvecklingspolitiska Forum Afrika toppmötet organiserades av Friends of Europe

DELA MED SIG:

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Andris-PiebalgsAndris PIEBALGS, Bryssel, 24 juni 2014

“Introduction: Africa today

På några decennier har Afrika tagit sig ur skuggorna av kolonialt styre, apartheid, förlamande skulder och ekonomisk stagnation. Det har gått in i en ny era av oöverträffad ekonomisk och demografisk tillväxt. Idag är det den mest dynamiska kontinenten, som anses vara världens "reservoar". Den har ett antal tillgångar som kommer att vara avgörande för dess förmåga att frigöra sin fulla potential. Låt mig bara lyfta fram två.

“[1. Economic dynamism]

“First, there is growth. Between 2003 and 2011, while much of the world was stuck in recession, average GDP in Africa grew by 5.2 percent. In 2012, eight of the ten fastest-growing economies were African.

“[2. The youngest continent]

“Second, there is human capital. Africa has the fastest-growing population in the world – and the youngest, too. In 1900, Africa represented 7% of the world population; today it represents 16% and it is estimated that in 2100, it will represent 38%. Between 2010 and 2015, Africa’s working age population will more than double. And by 2050, a quarter of the world’s working age population will be African.

Annons

“Challenges ahead (pitfalls)

“You will agree, then, that in many respects Africa’s progress has been astounding. And with much of its potential still untapped, the path ahead looks promising. However, there will be many pitfalls to avoid along the way. For Africa is also a continent of contrasts. A number of huge challenges still prevent it from fully exploiting its potential.

“First, governance is still an issue. The 2013 Mo Ibrahim index showed that while most African countries had experienced widespread human development and improved economic opportunities since 2000, average scores in the safety and rule of law category had declined sharply.

“Second, violent conflict and the threat of extremism continue to dog the continent. The conflicts in Central African Republic, Mali, South Sudan and Somalia in particular have grabbed headlines worldwide.

“Third, famines, pandemics and climate change impacts are an ever-present danger.

“And fourth, solid economic performance still hides huge inequalities, which may prove destabilising. In sub-Saharan Africa the number of people living on less than 1.25 dollars a day has fallen from 56 to 41 per cent. And yet this is the only region where the number of people living in extreme poverty has risen steadily – from 290 million in 1990 to 414 million in 2010. In all, more than a third of the world’s poor live in sub-Saharan Africa.

“In short, today is the time to finally unleash Africa’s huge and unrivalled potential. And I am very confident that this can be done. In recent years I have noticed strong willingness among African leaders and citizens alike to change the perception of Africa. They want Africa to become a continent of opportunity and success rather than a land of starving children and poverty. They want former and unjustified stereotypes to disappear once for all. In this regard, the African Union’s long-term strategy, Agenda 2063, sets out a vision and a plan to make full use of Africa’s potential to give its people a brighter future.

“More than ever, Africa is taking its destiny in its own hands while Europe is ready to remain Africa’s steadfast and reliable partner to make its vision a reality.

“EU-Africa: a privileged partnership

“The EU-Africa Summit which took place in last April demonstrated once again the privileged relationship both continents have The EU is Africa’s main development partner. It is its biggest trading partner and its top investor.

“Despite the economic crisis, in 2012 the EU as a whole committed 18.5 billion euro, or 45 per cent of global aid, to Africa. Between now and 2020, the Commission alone will provide more than 28 billion euro in development assistance for Africa.

“Aid really does work, ladies and gentlemen.

“Thanks to EU development assistance, since 2004 around 14 million new pupils have enrolled in primary education and more than 70 million people have been connected to improved drinking water worldwide. Over the same period, the EU has helped construct or renovate more than 8,500 health facilities worldwide. Between 2007 and 2012, the EU helped provide access to electricity to over 600 thousand households in Africa, with around 80 thousand jobs being created in the energy sector.

“These great results have been possible because donors and partner countries have worked together to achieve them. And yet, with the MDG deadline only some 500 days away, much remains to be done. Progress has been uneven and most sub-Saharan countries are still lagging behind. We must all redouble our efforts to finish the unfinished work and put Africa on the road to inclusive and sustainable growth for good.

Strategi för inkluderande och hållbar utveckling och fattigdomsbekämpning genom Agenda för förändring

“The enormous changes in many African and developing countries, and a belief that we could and should get even better poverty eradication results from our development funds were some of the factors in my decision to carry out a fundamental reform of EU development policy to make it even more focused and effective.

“With the Agenda for Change the EU has set up a strategy that goes beyond the symptoms to tackle the very root causes of poverty. It is based on three principles: targeting our funds to those countries most in need; concentrating funds on a limited number of strategic sectors where we can have the greatest impact; and placing special emphasis on results.

“Over the past three years, we have put these principles in action.

Differentiering

“In today’s world, we can’t cooperate with China, India or Brazil as we do with Senegal, Somalia or Bangladesh. In the negotiations on the multiannual financial framework to set the European Union’s budget from 2014 to 2020 we succeeded in maintaining high levels of aid. Our aid budget, amounting to 50.1 billion euro, will be mostly targeted towards the poorest countries where our aid really has an added value. Indeed, 70 per cent of EU bilateral cooperation will be allocated to Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries. With 24 of the 25 poorest countries in 2013 located in Africa, the continent will be our major partner.

Koncentration av biståndet

“The focus of our support will be directed to the tre kritiska sektorer för utveckling som identifierats av Agenda for Change. De är för det första mänskliga rättigheter, demokrati och andra nyckelelement i god förvaltning; för det andra, drivkrafter för inkluderande och hållbar tillväxt – särskilt jordbruk och energi; och för det tredje, mänsklig utveckling.

“Human development will remain a key feature of our development. We will therefore continue to allocate at least 20% of EU funding on health and education.

“This means, for example, that the EU will more than double its funding for vacciner och immunisering världen över, från 10 miljoner till 25 miljoner euro per år. Vi stärker också vårt stöd till det globala partnerskapet för utbildning, vars mål är att uppnå universella utbildningsmål genom att sätta alla 57 miljoner barn i grundskoleåldern i skolan och ge inlärning av god kvalitet. Kommissionen planerar att fördubbla sitt bidrag till partnerskapet vid påfyllningskonferensen den 26 juni.

“Likewise, to escape poverty, countries must be able to feed their people and secure their energy supply. That is why we see agriculture and energy as catalysts for sustainable growth. For the next seven years, jordbruk och livsmedelssäkerhet kommer att vara en fokussektor i mer än 30 afrikanska länder. I dagens värld av överflöd är det verkligen oacceptabelt att se svältande barn, som jag har sett till exempel i Somalia och Djibouti. Mer än 3 miljarder euro kommer att tilldelas för att stödja hållbar jordbruksverksamhet och cirka 3.5 miljarder euro för att bekämpa hämning.

“Energy kommer också att vara en viktig fokussektor. Under initiativet Hållbar energi för alla kommer EU att allokera mer än 3 miljarder euro till energi under de kommande 7 åren, vilket i sin tur kommer att öka investeringar som överstiger 15 miljarder euro. Jag tillkännagav nyligen lanseringen av 16 energiprojekt i nio afrikanska länder under vårt nya landsbygdselektrifieringsprogram. Dessa åtgärder kommer att leda till projekt som ger el till mer än 2 miljoner människor på landsbygden och kommer att föra oss närmare vårt mål att ansluta 500 miljoner människor till 2030.

“So growth is an important factor in development. Yet we must not forget how fragile it can be without solida institutioner och styrelseformer att stödja det. Den arabiska våren har visat att det finns en verklig törst efter transparens, ansvarighet och respekt för mänskliga rättigheter. Det är anledningen till att 25 procent av de medel vi fördelar kommer att gå till branscher med anknytning till god samhällsstyrning, inklusive stöd till civilsamhället.

“Beyond these three main principles under the Agenda for Change, I must add a word on our support for fred och säkerhet. Vi har alla i åtanke de fruktansvärda bilderna av våld i Centralafrikanska republiken eller Sydsudan. EU spelar en avgörande roll i de länder som slits sönder av konflikter som förstör alla utvecklingsvinster och driver tillbaka miljontals människor i extrem fattigdom.

“We have contributed more than 1.2 billion euro since 2004 to help finance Africa-led peace support operations, in Somalia, Sudan, Mali or CAR.

Post-2015

"Damer och herrar,

“The Africa-EU partnership not only deals with concrete projects and development aid. It is also about cooperating on global political issues – such as the post 2015 agenda.

“What is at stake is critical: it is about putting the world on track towards poverty eradication and sustainable development.

“The EU made its position clear last year. We believe that the post-2015 framework should have poverty eradication and sustainable development at its core, and include five main elements: basic living standards; inclusive and sustainable growth; sustainable management of natural resources; equity, equality and justice; and peace and security.

“When the African Union adopted its common position on the post-2015 framework last January, I was very pleased to see that it is extremely close to the EU position. During the last Africa-EU Summit, African and European leaders recognised that defining the post-2015 agenda provides – and I quote – a “unique opportunity to realise our common vision of a peaceful, just and equitable world that is free of poverty and respects the environment”.

“Both sides also committed to “work in partnership to support the definition and of an ambitious, inclusive and universal post-2015 development agenda that should reinforce the international community’s commitment to poverty eradication and sustainable development”.

“We must now turn these fine words into real action by engaging further in the moves to set up an ambitious agenda ahead of the intergovernmental negotiations in 2015.

Slutsats: Framtida relationer med Afrika

"Damer och herrar,

“The time has come for Africa and Europe to leave behind the traditional donor-recipient relationship and to develop a shared long-term vision for our relations in a globalised world.

“That’s why we’ve agreed to build a strong political relationship and cooperate closely in a broad range of priority areas – from peace and security to social and human development and economic and trade cooperation. Our relationship is founded on shared values, shared interests and shared strategic objectives. It strives to bring Africa and Europe closer together through stronger economic cooperation and more sustainable development, with both continents living side by side in peace, security, democracy, prosperity, solidarity and human dignity.

“Ours is a partnership of mutual interests. When terrorist activities spread in Africa or migration flows become unmanageable, they threaten Africa and Europe alike. Likewise, when Africa’s growth increases or inter-African trade expands, the opportunities for both Africa and Europe are evident.

“We may not agree on everything, but with a sense of common responsibility we can work together to find common solutions. That’s what a partnership of equals is all about. It’s a partnership to which we can and must aspire.”

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